DLP Publications

What Happens to Economic Growth When High-Growth Autocracies Become Democracies?

Why in some countries does growth fall or collapse under democratic transition, while in others it is sustained? This paper examines the impact of democratic transition on growth to help policy makers and activists weigh the costs of transition, and if possible to reduce them.

Tim Kelsall, September 2016

Higher education and leadership for development in the Philippines

This two-page policy brief is based on research in the Philippines that explored the role of higher education in the emergence of leaders who promote development. 

Michele Schweisfurth, September 2016

Developmental leadership in the Philippines: Educational experiences, institutions and networks

This paper explores the role of higher education in the emergence of developmental leaders and the formation of networks among leaders in the Philippines. Its findings nuance the perennial emphasis on human capital as an outcome of higher education, highlighting the importance of social capital - particularly of networks with people from other backgrounds. 

Michele Schweisfurth, Lynn Davies, Lorraine Pe Symaco, Oscar Valiente, Chelsea Robles, September 2016

Communication for Development

This three-page Concept Brief addresses three questions: What is ‘Communication for Development’ (C4D)? How is it used in international development? And what are some of the common pitfalls associated with its use? 

Tait Brimacombe, August 2016

Service Delivery, Legitimacy, Stability and Social Cohesion: Annotated Bibliography

This annotated bibliography identifies academic and more policy-oriented literature about the relationship between service delivery and state legitimacy, social cohesion and social stability. 

Emilie Combaz, Claire Mcloughlin, May 2016

Executive Summary - Testing Transparency: The Political Economy of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative in Myanmar

This two-page summary of the paper below highlights emerging lessons from Myanmar's Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative process.

Taylor Brown, April 2016

Testing Transparency: The Political Economy of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative in Myanmar

This paper explores the political economy dynamics of extractive resources in Myanmar and, specifically, the EITI process. It examines the interests of political, administrative, private sector and civil society actors engaged in this process and the contests among them. It considers how the EITI process has contributed to Myanmar’s continuing economic and political reforms and identifies challenges and emerging lessons.

Taylor Brown, April 2016

Executive Summary - Thinking and Working Politically: From Theory Building to Building an Evidence Base

This two-page summary of the paper below discusses the steps required to build a robust evidence base for 'thinking and working politically' (TWP) in development. It proposes research questions, an analytical framework, and case study selection criteria.

Niheer Dasandi, Heather Marquette, Mark Robinson, January 2016

Thinking and Working Politically: From Theory Building to Building an Evidence Base

This paper discusses the steps required to build a robust evidence base for 'thinking and working politically' (TWP) in development. It proposes research questions, an analytical framework, and case study selection criteria. 

Niheer Dasandi, Heather Marquette, Mark Robinson, January 2016

Everyday Political Analysis

This short note introduces a stripped-back political analysis framework designed to help frontline development practitioners make quick but politically-informed decisions.

David Hudson, Heather Marquette, Sam Waldock, January 2016

Executive Summary - Researching State Legitimacy: A Political Approach to a Political Problem

State legitimacy is an important concept for understanding power and politics, yet research on it has been surprisingly apolitical. Explaining legitimation and de-legitimation requires attention to political structures, ideas and agency – in particular, to the expectations established through the social contract, the nature of the political settlement, and how legitimacy claims are made and contested in public discourse.

Claire Mcloughlin, November 2015

Researching State Legitimacy: A Political Approach to a Political Problem

This paper carves a path through the sprawling debate on the meaning and measurement of state legitimacy, and sets out a political approach to researching it. The paper also provides an analytical framework that applies this political approach to a key question for state-building practitioners and legitimacy scholars: whether, when and why service delivery supports or undermines state legitimacy.

Claire Mcloughlin, November 2015

Executive Summary - Political Settlements and the Politics of Inclusion

This paper draws on academic and grey literature to examine thinking and research on political settlements, state formation and political, social and economic transformation. It highlights insights from the literature that could help develop a more incremental approach to promoting inclusion.

Alina Rocha Menocal, October 2015

Political Settlements and the Politics of Inclusion

This paper draws on academic and grey literature to examine thinking and research on political settlements, state formation and political, social and economic transformation. It highlights insights from the literature that could help develop a more incremental approach to promoting inclusion.

Alina Rocha Menocal, October 2015

The Politics of Public Services: A Service Characteristics Approach

This article in World Development, co-authored by Claire Mcloughlin, proposes a framework for understanding and comparing the politics of different services. Policy responses can be targeted to address service characteristics where they present opportunitiesfor, or constraints to, better services.

Richard Batley, Claire Mcloughlin, October 2015

Executive Summary - The Donor's Dilemma: Thinking Politically About Difficult Choices

Development aid donors are often faced with a dilemma when giving aid to non-democratic developmental states. Giving aid to governments that are committed to achieving development seems desirable, yet such assistance can also be seen as condoning or even supporting rights violations committed by non-democratic regimes. 

Niheer Dasandi, Lior Erez, September 2015

The Donor's Dilemma: Thinking Politically About Difficult Choices

Development aid donors are often faced with a dilemma when giving aid to non-democratic developmental states. Giving aid to governments that are committed to achieving development seems desirable, yet such assistance can also be seen as condoning or even supporting rights violations committed by non-democratic regimes. 

Niheer Dasandi, Lior Erez, September 2015

Accessing the Inaccessible in Difficult Environments: The Uses and Abuses of Crowdsourcing

This paper discusses the increasing interest in crowdsourcing and other social media as research data collection methods in conflict-affected regions. It argues that crowdsourcing can be a useful supplement when conducting research in difficult-to-access areas, but should not replace field research. Reliance on remotely gathered data can give researchers an incomplete understanding of realities on the ground, which privileges the voices of those with most access to the technology.

Suda Perera, September 2015

Collective Action

This Concept Brief outlines how development challenges have been viewed as collective action problems. It suggests issues for external actors to take into account in considering how – and whether – to incorporate collective action theory into development programming.

Caryn Peiffer, August 2015

Executive Summary - The State-Private Interface in Public Service Provision

This paper finds that most services are provided by multiple actors, although the combinations of roles and modes of interaction vary. There is strong evidence that public-private partnerships work best where there is a good fit with local norms and expectations – legitimacy – and structured relationships with institutions that can monitor providers and have the independence to do so.

Elizabeth Dávid-Barrett, July 2015

The State-Private Interface in Public Service Provision

The provision of public services typically involves many actors, state and non-state, at different phases of the process. The variety of interfaces between the state and the private sector can have important implications – for how services are delivered and who benefits, for the balance of power, for state legitimacy, and for accountability. This paper seeks to understand the conditions in which different institutional arrangements for public service provision produce developmental outcomes.

Elizabeth Dávid-Barrett, July 2015

When Does Service Delivery Improve the Legitimacy of a Fragile or Conflict-Affected State?

In this article in Governance, Claire Mcloughlin takes stock of the theory and evidence on the relationship between service delivery and state legitimacy in fragile and conflict-affected states, challenging common assumptions.

Claire Mcloughlin, July 2015

Inclusive Political Settlements: Evidence, Gaps, and Challenges of Institutional Transformation

This paper, commissioned by DFID, concludes that while inclusive political settlements and processes are essential in the long-term building of more peaceful and resilient states and societies, we still know relatively little about how the boundaries of a settlement with an initially narrow focus on elite inclusion can be expanded.

Alina Rocha Menocal, June 2015

Executive Summary - Political Engagement with Non-State Actors in Areas of Limited Statehood

This paper notes that the evidence suggests truly inclusive political settlements will need to involve any non-state actors able to exercise significant economic, political, or social influence on the development process, regardless of whether this influence is positive or negative.

Suda Perera, June 2015

Political Engagement with Non-State Actors in Areas of Limited Statehood

Even where there are no functioning state structures, few societies remain ungoverned. This paper surveys the literature on development and non-state actors. It sets out the evidence for the merits of engaging politically with NSAs by incorporating them into governance and statebuilding programmes, and examines the challenges this may pose.

Suda Perera, June 2015

The limitations of education for addressing corruption: lessons from attitudes towards reporting in Papua New Guinea

This discussion paper, published in collaboration with the Australian National University's Development Policy Centre, finds that the positive effects of education on willingness to report corruption are significantly diminished when citizens lack trust that authorities will address corruption.

Grant Walton, Caryn Peiffer, June 2015

Executive Summary - Women's Leadership in the Pacific

This paper finds that Pacific women's prominent informal peacebuilding role has not always led to their participation in formal peacebuilding processes. It notes that women's impact on governance and policy-making in the region has received little scrutiny. Further, although gender analyses carried out as part of donor-funded capacity development programmes contain much information on women's participation in Pacific bureaucracies, this material is rarely made public.

Abby McLeod, June 2015

Women's Leadership in the Pacific

This paper summarises the state of knowledge on Pacific women’s leadership in three spheres: formal politics, the bureaucracy, and civil society. A key finding is that Pacific women’s prominent informal peacebuilding role has not always led to their participation in formal peacebuilding processes.

Abby McLeod, June 2015

Gender, Sexuality and Inequality

This Concept Brief asks: How can we usefully define gender and sexuality in work that seeks to address inequality? Where are the intersections between gender and sexuality? What do we gain in our efforts to address inequality if we see gender and sexuality as linked? It makes the case for a focus on the processes and value judgements that underpin all inequalities, rather than on categories of people.

Gillian Fletcher, June 2015

Gender and Power

This Concept Brief addresses three questions: What is power and how can a gender perspective help us understand it? What is gender and how can a power perspective help us understand it? What policy and operational messages follow from a focus on gender and power?

Diana Koester, May 2015

How to Determine Vulnerability to Grass-Roots Corruption

This four-page note outlines methodological considerations for researchers examining people's vulnerability to bribery. It discusses the benefits and limitations of using sample survey data to gauge vulnerability to grass-roots corruption, and explains the importance of a two-step approach that considers whether people have had contact with the state as well as whether they have paid a bribe. 

Caryn Peiffer, March 2015

State Fragility

This Concept Brief addresses three questions. What is state fragility? How is the concept used in international development? What are the advantages and disadvantages of using the term?

Suda Perera, February 2015

What Do Indian Middle Class Attitudes to Poverty Tell Us About the Politics of Poverty Reduction?

This study finds that self-interest is not the only driver of middle class views of assistance for the poor in India: ideas and values are important. It notes the importance of understanding the reasons for middle class disengagement from poverty in developing countries. It suggests a political approach to policy design involving less focus on institutions and more focus on public opinion.

Niheer Dasandi, January 2015

Executive Summary 33 - What Do Indian Middle Class Attitudes to Poverty Tell Us About the Politics of Poverty Reduction?

This paper finds that self-interest is not the only driver of middle class views of assistance for the poor in India: ideas and values are important. It suggests a political approach to policy design involving less focus on institutions and more focus on public opinion

Niheer Dasandi, January 2015

Active Citizenship: 10 case studies and synthesis paper

This series of 10 Active Citizenship case studies and a synthesis paper of lessons learned have been published by Oxfam as part of a research project supported by DLP.

Duncan Green, January 2015

Corruption and Collective Action

A growing number of authors have argued that anti-corruption interventions have not worked because they have not taken into account that corruption is a collective action problem. This paper argues that three theoretical perspectives, not just collective action theory, can increase our understanding of corruption and how to address it.

Heather Marquette, Caryn Peiffer, January 2015

Executive Summary 32 - Corruption and Collective Action

This paper discusses three theoretical perspectives that can increase our understanding of corruption and how to address it.

Heather Marquette, Caryn Peiffer, January 2015

State Legitimacy

This Concept Brief offers a concise introduction to the core elements of 'state legitimacy'. It addresses four questions: How is the concept of legitimacy best understood? Why is it important? How do states accrue legitimacy? And what policy implications follow from this?

Claire Mcloughlin, December 2014

Authoritarianism, Democracy and Development

This 'State of the Art Paper' reviews the evidence on authoritarianism and development from the perspective of a policy-maker providing advice to an ostensibly developmental authoritarian regime.

Tim Kelsall, November 2014

Who will be the 'Principled Principals'? The determinants of active opposition to corruption

This paper uses survey data from Transparency International's 2013 Global Corruption Barometer to examine what determines people's willingness to act against corruption in 71 countries. 

Caryn Peiffer, Linda Alvarez, October 2014

Executive Summary 31 - Who will be the 'Principled Principals'? The determinants of active opposition to corruption

This paper uses survey data from Transparency International’s 2013 Global Corruption Barometer to examine what determines people’s willingness to act against corruption in 71 countries. 

Caryn Peiffer, Linda Alvarez, October 2014

The Politics-Bureaucracy Interface: Impact on Development Reform

This 'State of the Art' paper provides an in-depth review of the existing research on the relationship between political and bureaucratic leaders in developing countries, the factors that shape this relationship, and the impact it has on the success and failure of reforms.

Niheer Dasandi, October 2014

Political Settlements

This Concept Brief addresses three questions. How is the concept of the 'political settlement' best understood? Why is it important? And what policy implications follow from it?

Edward Laws, Adrian Leftwich, October 2014

Executive Summary 30 - Elite Attitudes Towards Cash Transfers and the Poor in Malawi

This paper presents findings from primary research in Malawi that examined elites' attitudes towards poverty and how to reduce it. It shows that their attitudes affect which policies they are willing to support. The paper argues that the planning of cash transfer programmes needs to involve more consideration of the country-specific attitudes of elites.

Chipiliro Kalebe-Nyamongo, Heather Marquette, September 2014

Elite Attitudes Towards Cash Transfers and the Poor in Malawi

This Research Paper presents findings from primary research in Malawi that examined elites' attitudes towards poverty and how to reduce it. It shows that their attitudes affect the policies they are willing to support and implement. The findings question the sustainability of Malawi's cash transfers beyond donor funding.

Chipiliro Kalebe-Nyamongo, Heather Marquette, September 2014

Using Action Research and Learning for Politically Informed Programming

This Research Paper outlines preliminary findings about how action research can help build more politically informed development programs. It discusses action research being undertaken by the Pacific Leadership Program, the Coalitions for Change program in the Philippines, and DLP.

Michael O'Keefe, John T. Sidel, Heather Marquette, Chris Roche, David Hudson, Niheer Dasandi, September 2014

Security and Justice: Towards Politically Informed Programming

There is a consensus amongst academics and practitioners that security and justice are intrinsically political. When providing assistance in this sector, donors are engaging with the fundamentally political nature of the state. This literature review examines current knowledge on how politics and power affect security and justice programming, and vice versa, and how donors can provide assistance in this sector that is more politically informed.

Shivit Bakrania, July 2014

Security and Justice: Towards Politically Informed Programming - in Brief

This brief is based on a review of the literature on security and justice provision. It notes that the importance of a politically nuanced approach to security and justice programming is widely recognised, but a mismatch between policy and practice remains.

Shivit Bakrania, July 2014

Research Paper 25 - From Political Economy to Political Analysis

This paper argues that existing political economy approaches lack the analytical tools needed to grasp the inner politics of development. Political economy has come to be seen narrowly as the economics of politics – the way incentives shape behaviour.

David Hudson and Adrian Leftwich, June 2014

Executive Summary 28 - Donors Doing Political Economy Analysis: From Process to Product (and Back Again?)

Practitioners and academics are today convinced that ‘thinking politically’ is important to successful development interventions. Since the early 2000s, attempts to mainstream political thinking in most donor agencies have used a political economy analysis PEA) approach, and yet this has been largely ineffective. This paper attempts to explain this failure through re-focusing current debate on PEA.

Jonathan Fisher and Heather Marquette, April 2014

Research Paper 28 - Donors Doing Political Economy Analysis: From Process to Product (and Back Again?)

This paper argues that the process of PEA is not fundamentally flawed and indeed agrees, as PEA advocates have consistently argued throughout the 2000s, that success in future development programmes requires a wholesale re-thinking of therelationship between politics and international development.

Jonathan Fisher, Heather Marquette, April 2014

Research Paper 27 - Achieving Reforms in Oligarchical Democracies: The Role of Leadership and Coalitions in the Philippines

This paper examines the role of developmental leadership in two major reforms introduced in the Philippines in 2012: the Sin Tax Reform and the re-registration of voters in the Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao (ARMM).

John T. Sidel, April 2014

Executive Summary 27 - Achieving Reforms in Oligarchical Democracies

This paper examines the role of developmental leadership in two major reforms introduced in the Philippines in 2012: the excise tax reform, which significantly raised taxes on cigarettes and alcohol – generally referred to as the Sin Tax Reform – and the re-registration of voters in the Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao (ARMM).

John T. Sidel, April 2014

Research Paper 26 - Higher Education and Developmental Leadership: The Case of Ghana

This study highlights the important role that quality education, at both secondary and higher level, has played in the formation of developmental leadership in Ghana. Its findings include the way in which quality education (largely residential in Ghana) has promoted social integration and shared values, and can help form networks and coalitions that have a greater chance of initiating and sustaining reform.

Amir Jones, Charlotte Jones, and Susy Ndaruhutse, March 2014

Executive Summary 26 - Higher Education and Developmental Leadership in Ghana

This study highlights the important role that quality education, at both secondary and higher level, has played in the formation of developmental leadership in Ghana.

Amir Jones, Charlotte Jones, and Susy Ndaruhutse, March 2014

Research Paper 24 - The 'Medellin Miracle': The Politics of Crisis, Elites and Coalitions

This study draws on interviews with Medellín’s political, business and civil society leaders and uses a structure-agency analysis to examine the politics behind the city’s remarkable transformation. It asks how such critical junctures can best be used to advance democratic, peaceful and equitable socio-economic development in a conflict situation.

Kate Maclean, March 2014

Executive Summary 25 - From Political Economy to Political Analysis

This paper argues that existing political economy approaches lack the analytical tools needed to grasp the inner politics of development.

David Hudson and Adrian Leftwich, January 2014

Executive Summary 24 - The Medellin Miracle

This DLP Research Paper examines the political processes behind the ‘Medellín Miracle’. Epidemic violence in Colombia’s most industrialised city has dropped dramatically from its peak in 1991 of more than 380 murders per 100,000 people.

Kate Maclean, January 2014

Conference Report - DLP Research: Findings and Future Directions

This report, prepared for DLP's Adrian Leftwich Memorial Conference, provides an overview of DLP's findings so far and introduces our core areas of research for the next three years.

Heather Marquette, January 2014

Executive Summary - Political Settlements and State Formation: The Case of Somaliland

Why did the civil wars in Somaliland end while Somalia’s continued? This paper asks why large-scale violence was resolved in the internationally unrecognised ‘Republic of Somaliland’ but not in the rest of Somalia. The case of Somaliland offers insights into why some domestic power struggles – including violent ones – build the foundations for relative political order while others perpetuate cycles of economic malaise and political violence.

Sarah Phillips, December 2013

Research Paper 23 - Political Settlements and State Formation: The Case of Somaliland

The case of Somaliland offers insights into why some domestic power struggles – including violent ones – build the foundations for relative political order while others perpetuate cycles of economic malaise and political violence.

Sarah Phillips, December 2013

Background Paper 14 - Governance, Politics and Development in the Pacific: A literature review

This DLP Background Paper provides a short survey of the literature on development issues in the Pacific, and an assessment of the extent to which such research and policy announcements have really helped to provide and institutionalise a more politically informed understanding of development.

Edward Laws, January 2013

Background Paper 13 - The Politics of State Business Relations in the Pacific

State business relationships are political relationships and the role of leadership in establishing and sustaining such relationships is crucial. There is now a strong comparative and case-study literature on the politics of state-business relations on a global basis, but there has been little focus on this topic in the Pacific.

Caryn Peiffer, November 2012

Background Paper 12 - Monitoring and Evaluation when Politics Matters: Notes from Program Experience

It seems that we are on the frontier of a narrative shift: between a technical, rational, and scientific approach to development, and a recognition that politics matters; that poverty reduction is not a technical problem but requires significant social change. But how does monitoring and evaluation practice and the use of evidence in policy-making reflect and react to these shifting explanatory frameworks?

Chris Roche and Linda Kelly, November 2012

Background Paper 11 - The Evaluation of Politics and the Politics of Evaluation

Few people would want to argue against the 'results' and 'value for money' agenda that now dominates the current fashions in evaluation and monitoring. But are we clear about what is meant by 'value'? Are all 'results' amenable to standard methods of evaluation? And how does one evaluate results that are intended or expected to mature gradually or to occur many years in the future?

Chris Roche and Linda Kelly, August 2012

Executive Summary - Political Settlements, Elite Pacts, and Governments of National Unity

A growing body of recent scholarship puts political settlements at the centre of the development process. The political settlements approach focuses on the formal and informal negotiations, bargains, pacts and agreements between elite actors, as crucial drivers of the locally effective institutions and policies that promote or frustrate the achievement of sustainable growth, political stability and socially inclusive development.

Edward Laws, August 2012

Background Paper 10 - Political Settlements, Elite Pacts, and Governments of National Unity: A Conceptual Study

This paper surveys and clarifies the conceptual field by addressing the questions: How should political settlements be defined and understood? How should elite pacts and governments of national unity (GNUs) be defined and understood?

Edward Laws, August 2012

Background Paper 9 - Bringing History Back in: Three Big Books: Summaries and some questions

The publication over the past few years of these three ‘big’ and influential books on the politics of development has stimulated much discussion and debate in the international development community and amongst scholars with broad development interests.

Edward Laws and Adrian Leftwich, July 2012

Research Paper 22 - Manoeuvres for a Low Carbon State: The Local Politics of Climate Change in China and India

Debates about how to respond to climate change have largely focused on the difficulties in agreeing on national targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The general assumption is that the main obstacle to emissions reduction is the inability to reach agreement internationally. However, the current debate underplays the challenges of building the state capacity needed to ensure mitigation takes place.

Tom Harrison and Genia Kostka, June 2012

Executive Summary 22 - Manoeuvres for a Low Carbon State

This paper analyses the way the implementation of mitigation strategies has been carried out in promoting energy efficiency measures in China and India.

Tom Harrison and Genia Kostka, June 2012

Concept Paper 3 - Reform Coalitions

Reform coalitions - coalitions that include both state and business actors working for policy and institutional reforms - are frequently cited as  important components in successful growth outcomes. But what do we know about the inner politics that drive these potentially important coalitions? 

Caryn Peiffer, May 2012

Concept Paper 2 - Riker in the Tropics

It is more than 50 years since William Riker published his classic book on The Theory of Political Coalitions (1962).This paper revisits Riker’s work to see what contribution his insights and conclusions may have for understanding the success (or failure) of developmental coalitions in the politics of developing countries.

Edward Laws and Adrian Leftwich, April 2012

Workshop Paper - Coalitions in the Politics of Development

This report of a DLP coalitions workshop represents the first of a series of papers and research findings from DLP that seek to clarify the concept of coalitions - a pervasive feature of the politics of development and change. 

Adrian Leftwich, April 2012

Research Paper 21 - From Islands of Integrity to Understanding the Politics of Corruption Reduction: Phase One: Statistical Identification of Positive Outliers

Under what conditions does a reduction in practices of corruption occur? Can it be attributed to improved institutional arrangements and enforcement procedures? Does it turn as much, or more, on the role of key players and coalitions? Or is it both? 

Caryn Peiffer, March 2012

Research Paper 20 - Between Hope and Resignation: Perceptions and practices of politics and leadership among the poor in southern South America

How do the poor and the marginalized perceive the politics of democratic processes, especially in new or born-again democracies? Does it work for them? And how do they perceive the performance and behaviour of democratically elected leaderships? 

Egido et al., February 2012

Executive Summary 20 - Between Hope and Resignation

This small study shows that, although they welcome democracy, a sample of urban and rural poor in three Latin American countries regard democratic politics as distant from their preoccupations and are somewhat cynical about their elected leaderships.

Egido et al., February 2012

Research Paper 19 - Emerging and Non-Emerging African Countries: A Statistical Exploration of the Leadership Factor

Using the DLP’s African Heads of State database, this paper explores the potential contribution which leadership may have made to the stories outlined in a well received study on Emerging Africa: How 17 Countries Are Leading the Way by Steven Radelet.

Monique Theron, February 2012

Executive Summary 19 - Emerging and Non-Emerging African Countries

In his well-received book on Emerging Africa: How 17 Countries Are Leading the Way, Steve Radelet distinguished between Emerging, Threshold and Non-Emerging countries in sub-Saharan Africa. This new paper draws on the DLP African Heads of State database, to explore the potential contribution which leadership may have made to these stories.

Monique Theron, February 2012

Research Paper 18 - Learning and Leadership: Exploring the linkages between higher education and developmental leadership

Has the international community devoted too little attention to the role of higher education in promoting developmental outcomes? Can higher education make a significant contribution to the emergence of developmental leadership in all sectors of society, both public and private? If so, how? And what is the evidence for this?

Laura Brannelly, Laura Lewis and Susy Ndaruhutse, November 2011

Executive Summary 18 - Learning and Leadership

Has the international community devoted too little attention to the role of higher education in promoting developmental outcomes? Can higher education make a significant contribution to the emergence of developmental leadership in all sectors of society, both public and private? If so, how? And what is the evidence for this?

Laura Brannelly, Laura Lewis and Susy Ndaruhutse, November 2011

Research Paper 17 - African Trends and Transformation: The Profiles of Sub-Saharan African Executive Heads of State since Independence

The profiles of the heads of state of Sub-Saharan African countries have changed remarkably since the advent of independence in Africa (roughly since 1960). This paper is based on an extensive collection of data about the backgrounds of African heads of state over the last five decades, recorded in the Development Leadership Programme’s leadership database and its associated query tool.

Monique Theron, November 2011

Executive Summary 17 - African Trends and Transformation

The study provides empirical data on leaders’ biographies that show that civilian rulers share similar backgrounds and profiles, whereas the background profiles of personal rulers and military rulers differ.

Monique Theron, November 2011

Concept Paper 1 - Predatory leaderships, predatory rule and predatory states

Although the notion has been around for a long time the term 'predatory' leadership has only recently been used by researchers and policy makers, but often in loose, varied or inconsistent ways. The concept brief sets out to sharpen the concept by pinning down some of the defining characteristics of 'predatory' rule.

Alex Bavister-Gould, September 2011

Workshop Report - Politics, Leadership and Coalitions in Development: Findings, insights and guidance

Findings, insights and guidance from the DLP's first Research and Policy Workshop, Frankfurt 10-11 March 2011.

Adrian Leftwich and Chris Wheeler, June 2011

Research Paper 16 - The Politics of Free Public Services in Decentralised Indonesia

The paper explains the variation in the provision of public services across district governments in Indonesia, and assesses the policy implications for donors and other development actors interested in improving Indonesian citizens’ access to basic education and health services.

Andrew Rosser, Ian Wilson and Priyambudi Sulistiyanto, May 2011

Executive Summary 16 - The Politics of Free Public Services in Decentralised Indonesia

The purpose of this paper is to explain this cross-district variation in reponse to the issue of user fees for basic educaiton and health services, and assess the policy implications for donors and other development actors interested in improving citizens’ access to basic education and health services.

Andrew Rosser, Ian Wilson and Priyambudi Sulistiyanto, May 2011

Workshop Paper - Politics, Leadership and Coalitions in Development - Policy Implications of the DLP Research Evidence

This document has been prepared for the DLP Research Policy Workshop, held on 10-11 March, 2011 in Frankfurt. It consists of all the Executive Summaries from the first phase of research of the DLP, plus an introductory analysis by Adrian Leftwich.

Adrian Leftwich and Chris Wheeler, March 2011

Workshop Paper - Working politically Workshop Frankfurt

The purpose of this short note is to suggest ways we might usefully conceptualise what it means to think and work politically in a developmental context, and to outline some of the preliminary findings about the role of leadership, politics and coalitions in development 

Adrian Leftwich, March 2011

Research Paper 15 - Institutions of Integrity and the Integrity of Institutions: Integrity and ethics in the politics of developmental leadership

In current debate, many developmental problems are attributed to the failure of leadership and, in particular, to the absence of either ‘ethical leadership’ or ‘integrity in leadership’. But what is ‘ethical leadership’? What is ‘developmental integrity’? How is it achieved? And what are the conditions for sustaining it?

Eduard Grebe and Minka Woermann, March 2011

Executive Summary 15 - Integrity and Ethics in the politics of Developmental Leadership

In current debate, many developmental problems are attributed to the failure of leadership and, in particular, to the absence of either ‘ethical leadership’ or ‘integrity in leadership’. But what is ‘ethical leadership’? What is ‘developmental integrity’? How is it achieved? And what are the conditions for sustaining it?

Eduard Grebe and Minka Woermann, March 2011

Research Paper 14 - Yemen: Developmental Dysfunction and Division in a Crisis State

As Yemen and the Middle East experienced major shifts in early 2011, this paper examined the underlying drivers of these changes. It looks behind the scenes at the Yemeni regime’s opaque internal politics and at the nature of the entrenched neopatrimonial system that has governed it for more than three decades.

Sarah Phillips, February 2011

Executive Summary 14 - Yemen: Developmental Dysfunction and Division

This paper looks behind the scenes at the Yemeni regime’s opaque internal politics and at the nature of the neopatrimonial system that it has entrenched over the past 32 years.

Sarah Phillips, February 2011

Research Paper 13 - Structure and Agency in the Politics of a Womens Rights Coalition in South Africa

How do women’s rights groups campaign for vital institutional reform of archaic laws on sexual violence in new democracies? How can they best ‘work politically’ to achieve positive outcomes? What lessons are there for donors and supporters?

Rebecca Hodes, Jennifer Thorpe and Orly Stern, February 2011

Executive Summary 13 - Structure and Agency in a Womens Rights Coalition in South Africa

This research paper uses findings from a study of the National Working Group on Sexual Offences, in South Africa, to demonstrate how civil society coalitions may draw on and expand their elite networks and exploit political and institutional arrangements to build developmental partnerships.

Rebecca Hodes, Jennifer Thorpe and Orly Stern, February 2011

Research Paper 12 - Working Politically Behind Red Lines: Structure and agency in a comparative study of women's coalitions in Egypt and Jordan

This study examines six cases of collective initiatives to advance women’s rights in Egypt and Jordan between 2000 and 2010. It explores what accounts for the emergence, success and failure of women’s coalitions in these two countries. 

Mariz Tadros, February 2011

Executive Summary 12 - Working Politically Behind Red Lines Egypt and Jordan

“Working politically behind red lines” examines six cases of collective initiatives to advance women’s rights in Egypt and Jordan between 2000 and 2010. The study explores what accounts for the emergence, success and failure of women’s coalitions in these two countries.

Mariz Tadros, February 2011

Research Paper 11 - An Analysis of Leadership Development Programmes Working in the Context of Development

Many new Leadership Development Programmes (LDPs) have emerged as interest within the international development community has increased in ‘leadership’ as a factor in the processes of development. This paper reviews leadership development programmes as a tool for development policy. 

Fraser Kennedy and Heather Lyne de Ver, February 2011

Executive Summary 11 - An Analysis of Leadership Development Programmes

This paper reviews leadership development programmes as a tool for development policy. We argue that donor and recipient organisations need to be much more discriminating when choosing or designing programmes; that most programmes fall short if their aim is to contribute to development; and that understanding the ‘political’ nature of leadership is key to choosing or designing a good programme.

Fraser Kennedy and Heather Lyne de Ver, February 2011

Background Paper 5 - Overview and Objectives: The Developmental Leadership Program

The Developmental Leadership Program (DLP) addresses an important gap in international thinking and policy about the critical role played by leaders, elites and coalitions in the politics of development.

Steve Hogg and Adrian Leftwich, February 2011

Research Paper 10 - Higher education and the formation of developmental elites: A literature review and preliminary data analysis

There is increasing recognition that overcoming the challenges of development will require leadership across the public and private sectors. But how do developmental leaders acquire the necessary skills and values to lead? How might higher education influence this process, and how can it contribute towards improved governance? 

Laura Brannelly, Laura Lewis and Susy Ndaruhutse, February 2011

Executive Summary 10 - Higher Education and the Formation of Developmental Elites

This paper addresses the hitherto neglected question of whether and how higher education may contribute to the emergence of developmental leadership.

Laura Brannelly, Laura Lewis and Susy Ndaruhutse, February 2011

Research Paper 9 - The Anatomy of Political Predation: Leaders Elites and Coalitions in Zimbabwe, 1980-2010

This essay offers an interpretation of the rise and fall of Zimbabwe’s political economy through the lens of leadership. Of special interest are the actions of elite coalitions that link political parties, the state bureaucracy, and the security sector. 

Michael Bratton and Eldred Masunungure, January 2011

Executive Summary 9 - An Anatomy of Political Predation in Zimbabwe

This paper offers an interpretation of the rise and fall of Zimbabwe’s political economy through the lens of leadership. Of special interest are the actions of elite coalitions that link political parties, the state bureaucracy, and the security sector. 

Michael Bratton and Eldred Masunungure, January 2011

Research Paper 8 - Leadership Training and Network Formation: The evolution of the LEAD process

This case history traces the evolution of LEAD International. It shows how LEAD started as a well-funded international training program, lasting for a two-year period for each cohort, which aimed to enable leaders from developing countries to engage better politically and professionally with the international community on environmental issues. 

Marine Destrez and Nick Harrison, January 2011

Background Paper 8 - The Revolutionary Settlement in 17th Century England: Deploying a Political Settlements Analysis

This paper offers a brief and preliminary account of how the political processes at work in the revolutionary settlement in late 17th century England can be interpreted through the conceptual framework of the political settlements approach.

Edward Laws, November 2010

Background Paper 7 - Integrity, Leadership and Womens Coalitions: Midterm workshop report, Cape Town, May 2010

A report on a research workshop held in Cape Town on the 25-26th May 2010 to review four of its ten on-going research projects. 

Isabelle van Notten, July 2010

Background Paper 6 - An Overview of the Research in Progress: The Developmental Leadership Program

The key contention of the Developmental Leadership Program is that developmental leaderships and coalitions are critical in shaping the kind and quality of institutions and state-building processes, and hence are central to achieving the goals of economic growth, political stability, security and inclusive social development. 

Adrian Leftwich, May 2010

Research Paper 7 - The Flexible Structure of Politics in Meiji Japan

A period of profound transformation followed Japan’s encounter with the powerful West in the mid-1800s. In the space of two decades, the political regime was revised and new national goals and strategies were agreed.

Junji Banno and Kenichi Ohno, April 2010

Research Paper 6 - Bringing Agency Back In: Politics and Human Agency in Building Institutions and States

DLP’s initial objectives were to undertake research and analysis, build knowledge and present evidence of the impact of leadership on development outcomes. Attempts to examine the role of leaders in in shaping institutions and state-building were to provide the basis from which short, medium and long term policy and operational implications could be derived for the international development community.

Adrian Leftwich, June 2009

Research Paper 5 - Indigenous Institutions, Traditional Leaders and Developmental Coalitions: The Case of Greater Durban, South Africa

This paper examines the incorporation of indigenous institutions into the newly democratised eThekwini Metropolitan Municipality (the Metro) in Durban, South Africa, profiling examples of better and worse practice both at provincial level in KwaZulu-Natal and in the context of metropolitan governance. 

Jo Beall with Mduduzi Ngonyama, June 2009

Research Paper 4 - Coalitions, Capitalists and Credibility: Overcoming the Crisis of Confidence at Independence in Mauritius

Few countries in the developing world have solved the puzzle of governing for broad-based prosperity. Mauritius is an exception. At the end of the colonial period, it was an isolated plantation economy, with a deeply divided population that had experienced violent urban riots. Between 1968 and 1988 it was transformed and has earned its status as a development “superstar" on a number of measures.

Deborah Brautigam with Tania Diolle, April 2009

Research Paper 2 - Leaders, Elites and Coalitions in the Development of Botswana

This study, the first of its kind, analyses the inner political story of leaders, elite interactions and coalition formation in the processes of development in Botswana. It examines the role of leaders, elites and coalitions since independence in 1966 in making Botswana a successful ‘developmental state’. 

David Sebudubudu, April 2009

Background Paper 4 - Conceptions of Leadership

There is now a wide recognition in the international community that ‘leadership matters’ for growth and development, just as there was recognition some years ago that ‘institutions matter’. But what is ‘leadership’? How is it defined and can there be universal understandings and application of the concept?

Heather Lyne de Ver, March 2009

Research Paper 3 - Leaders, Networks and Coalitions in the AIDS Response: A Comparison of Uganda and South Africa

A quarter century into the AIDS epidemic, it is increasingly recognised that ‘AIDS leadership’ is crucial to sustaining and improving national and international responses. Under what conditions, and by which processes, do effective AIDS response coalitions emerge? And importantly, how can the international community encourage their formation?

Eduard Grebe with Nicoli Natrass, February 2009

Research Paper 1 - Cadres, Capitalists and Coalitions: The ANC, Business and Development in South Africa

South Africa’s political history in the last two decades can be written, and certainly understood, in terms of the way old, new, political and economic elites interacted in different domains and sectors to resolve major collective action problems and produce institutional solutions that would work, even if contentious. Less attention has been paid to the economic pact made by these elites, and this paper seeks to address this gap. 

Jo Ansie van Wyk, February 2009

Background Paper 3 - Leadership, Politics and Development

This literature survey set out to discover the extent to which, if at all, the general literature on ‘leadership’ addressed the role of leadership in the promotion of economic growth and social development, with particular (but not exclusive) reference to developing countries.

Heather Lyne de Ver, April 2008

Background Paper 2 - The Politics of Institutional Indigenization

It is broadly agreed that ‘good governance’ and sound institutions are necessary for growth and development, but our conventional approaches to governance reform are not working. What explains this now widespread failure of institutions, which have been transferred from developed to developing countries to take root and prosper?

Steve Hogg and Adrian Leftwich, January 2008

Background Paper 1 - Leaders, Elites and Coalitions: The case for leadership and the primacy of politics

This paper makes the case that effective leadership and the collective action of a relatively small number of leaders and elites, across the public and private sectors, are essential for building effective states, ensuring stability and promoting economic growth. We suggest that there is a significant gap in the international community’s knowledge and understanding of the importance of leaders, elites and coalitions in meeting the many different challenges of development in weak states and emerging economies.

Steve Hogg and Adrian Leftwich, November 2007

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